English Electric Lightning

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:36

Miles M.52

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:37

The prototypes, known as P.1, were built to Ministry of Supply Operational Requirement ER.103 of 1947 for a transonic research aircraft.

The first of the two P.1s WG760 flew for the first time from RAF Boscombe Down on 4 August 1954.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:38

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:39

The P.1's chief designer was W.E.W "Teddy" Petter, formerly chief designer at Westland Aircraft.

The design was controversial and the Short SB5 was built to test wing sweep and tailplane combinations.

The original combination was proved correct.

The forerunner of the Lightning series was the P.1A and P.1B flying "proof-of-concept" aircraft.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:40

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:41

Looking very much like the production series, the prototypes were distinguished by the rounded-triangular intakes, short fins and lack of radar or operational equipment.

Initial prototypes were powered by un-reheated Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire turbojets, although the Rolls-Royce Avon was used in subsequent aircraft.

On 25 November 1958, the P.1B became the first British aircraft to fly at Mach 2.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:43

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:43

The P.1 and P.1A prototypes proved several unique features of the Lightning design: stacked/staggered engines, a notched delta wing, and a low-mounted tailplane.

The most notable of these was the vertically stacked, longitudinally staggered engines.

Faced with the conflicting needs of minimizing frontal area, providing undisturbed engine airflow across a wide speed range, and packaging two engines to provide sufficient thrust to meet performance goals, Petter conceived a configuration where twin engines were fed by a single nose inlet, the flow was split vertically aft of the cockpit, and the nozzles were closely stacked.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:45

P1B à Cosford. RAF

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:45

This scheme effectively tucked one engine behind the cockpit.

The result was a low frontal area, an efficient inlet, and excellent single-engine handling.

Unfortunately, this stacked configuration also made engine maintenance difficult, and fluid leakage from the upper engine could cause fires.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:46

P1B

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:47

The fuselage was tightly packed, leaving no room for fuel tankage or main landing gear. This left the wings.

The notched delta wing did not have the volume of a standard delta, so space was a premium, and creative solutions were the rule.

Each wing contained a somewhat conventional three-section main fuel tank and leading-edge tank, holding 312 gal[nb 1], but interestingly, the wing flap also contained a 33 gal fuel tank. An additional 5 gal was contained in a "recuperator"--used to ensure continued fuel flow during negative-g operation—bringing the aircraft's total internal fuel capacity to 700 gal (3,180 l).
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:48

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:48

The main landing gear was sandwiched outboard of the main tanks and aft of the leading edge tanks, with the flap fuel tanks behind.

The long main gear legs retracted toward the wingtip, necessitating an exceptionally thin main tyre inflated to high pressure (330-350 psi).

Little volume was wasted, but even with all this creative packaging, the Lightning prototypes had a barely usable endurance, tyre life was short, and heavy underwing stores could not be carried.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 10:50

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 11:13

To increase the flexibility of the design, a conformal ventral store was added.

This store took two forms: a rocket engine, and a fuel tank.

The rocket engine store was to contain a Napier Double Scorpion motor and 200 gal of high-test peroxide (HTP, concentrated hydrogen peroxide) for oxidizer and to drive the rocket’s turbopump.

Fuel for the rocket would have been drawn from the Lightning’s internal tankage.

The rocket engine was intended to boost the Lightning’s performance against a supersonic, high altitude bomber threat, but in the end, this threat never emerged, and the Lightning’s basic performance was deemed sufficient to handle the current threat. The rocket engine store production was cancelled in 1958.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 11:14

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 11:15

The ventral store did see wide use in the form of the fuel tank.

The first version of this tank was jettisonable and held 250 gal (247 gal usable, 1,120 l).

This tank was carried by all early Lightnings, and in practice was only removed for aircraft maintenance.

Eventually, a non-jettisonable version was designed to further address the Lightning’s enduring fuel shortage, and this version was carried by later marks of Lightning.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 11:16

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 11:17

The first operational Lightning, the F.1 , was designed as a point defence interceptor to defend mainland Britain from bomber attack. To best perform this intercept mission, emphasis was placed on rate-of-climb, acceleration, and speed, rather than range and combat endurance.

It was equipped with two 30 mm Aden Cannon in front of the cockpit windscreen and an interchangeable fuselage weapon pack containing either an additional two ADEN cannon, 48, two inch air-to-air rockets, or two de Havilland Firestreak air-to-air missiles, a heavy fit optimized for attack of large aircraft.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 11:46

English Electric Lightning F1. RAF Leuchars

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 11:56

The radar and gunsight were collectively designated the AIRPASS: Airborne Interception Radar and Pilot Attack Sight System.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 11:58

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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 11:58

The next two Lightning variants, the F.1A and F.2, saw steady but relatively minor refinement of the basic design; however, the next variant, the F.3, was a major departure.

The F.3 had higher thrust Avon 301R engines, a larger, squared-off fin and strengthened intake bullet allowing a service clearance to Mach 2.0 (the F.1, F.1A and F.2 were limited to Mach 1.7), the A.I.23B radar and Red Top missile offering a limited forward hemisphere attack capability—and most notoriously—deletion of the nose cannon.
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Re: English Electric Lightning

Message par O'Dart le Dim 05 Sep 2010, 12:00

Lightning et Vautour à RAF Leuchars; 1965

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Re: English Electric Lightning

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