Lockheed L-188 Electra

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Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:36

Lockheed L 188 Electra sur Wikipedia.en

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The Lockheed Model 188 Electra is an American turboprop airliner built by Lockheed.

First flying in 1957, it was the first large turboprop airliner produced in the United States.

Initial sales were good, but after two fatal crashes which prompted an expensive modification program to fix a design defect, no further orders were placed.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:38

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:38

The type was soon replaced by turbojet airliners but many were modified as freighters and the type continues to operate in various roles into the 21st Century.

The airframe was also used as the basis for the Lockheed P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:38

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:39

Development

Lockheed had established a strong position in airliner production with its piston-engined Constellation series and was approached by Capital Airlines to develop a turboprop airliner, but with no interest from other American carriers the company did not produce a design; Capital Airlines went on to order 60 British Vickers Viscount four-engined turboprop airliners.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:41

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:41

In 1954 the company offered a twin-engined design, the CL-303, to meet an American Airlines requirement; it was a high-wing design for 60 to 70 passengers but again the design failed to interest other carriers.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:45

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:46

American Airlines then revised its requirement and specified a four-engine design for 75 passengers and a range of 2000 miles (3220 km).

To meet this Lockheed proposed a new design, the CL-310 with a low wing and either four Rolls-Royce Darts or Napier Elands.

The CL-310 design meet the American Airlines requirement but Eastern Airlines wanted an aircraft with more range and 85 to 90 seats.

Lockheed modified and enlarged the CL-310 design to use the Allison 501-D13, a civilian version of the T56 originally developed for the prototype Lockheed C-130 Hercules military transport.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:53

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:55

This design was launched as the Model 188 with an order for 35 aircraft by American Airlines on June 8, 1955, this was followed by an Eastern Airlines order for 40 on September 27, 1955.

The first aircraft took 26 months to complete and by that time Lockheed had orders for 129 aircraft.

The prototype, a Model 188A, first flew on December 6, 1957. and a was awarded a type certificate by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on 22 August 1958.

The first delivery was to Eastern Airlines on October 8, 1958 although it did not enter service until January 1959.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:58

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 15:59

In 1957 the United States Navy issued a requirement for an advanced maritime patrol aircraft.

Lockheed proposed a development of the Electra which was later placed into production as the P-3 Orion, which saw much greater success as it approaches nearly 50 years of front-line service.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 16:00

Un P-3

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 16:01

Design

The Model 188 Electra is a low-wing cantilever monoplane powered by four wing-mounted Allison 501-D13 turboprops.

It has a retractable nose-wheel landing gear and a conventional tailplane.

It has a cockpit crew of three and can carry 66 to 80 passengers in a mixed-class arrangement, although 98 could be carried in a high-density configuration.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 16:08

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 18:29

Operational history

Civil operations

American Airlines was the launch customer, followed by Eastern Airlines and Braniff Airways.

The Electra suffered a troubled start in service.

Passengers of early aircraft complained of high noise levels in the cabin forward of the wings, caused by propeller resonance.

To solve this problem, Lockheed redesigned the engine nacelles to tilt the engines upwards by three degrees.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 18:31

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 18:31

The changes were incorporated on the production line by mid-1959 or as modification kits for the aircraft already built, and resulted in much-improved performance as well as increased passenger comfort.

Much worse, three were lost in fatal accidents in 14 months between February 1959 and March 1960.

Following the third crash the FAA restricted the maximum speed at which Electras could be flown until the cause could be determined.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 18:33

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 18:34

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 18:34

After an extensive investigation, two of the crashes (in September 1959 and March 1960) were found to be caused by an engine mount problem.

They were not strong enough to dampen a whirling mode that affected the outboard engine nacelles.

When the oscillation was transmitted to the wings they were attached to, a severe up-and-down vibration escalated until the wings would tear themselves off the aircraft.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 18:35

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 18:36

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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

Message par Ramjet2 le Mer 17 Nov 2010, 18:36

The company implemented an expensive modification program labelled the Lockheed Electra Achievement Program or LEAP, in which the engine mounts and the wing structures supporting the mounts were strengthened, and some of the wing skins replaced with thicker material.

Each of the survivors of the 145 Electras built to that time was modified at Lockheed's expense at the factory, the modifications taking 20 days for each aircraft; and the changes were incorporated in subsequent aircraft as they were built.

However the damage had been done, the public lost confidence in the type; this and the smaller jets that were being introduced eventually relegated Electras to only the smallest airliners.
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Re: Lockheed L-188 Electra

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